My Bibliography Add to Bibliography. Generate a file for use with external citation management software. Create File. Int J Obes Lond. Epub Aug 9. Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the paradoxical weight gain associated with dieting is better related to genetic propensity to weight gain than to the weight loss episodes themselves. Supplemental Content Full text links. It is a slow blues with two melodic bass parts in tempo ratio of However, Nancarrow also composed three additional version of the same study, entitled by himself Didactical Study No.
These versions are also known as 2b, 2c and 2d, respectively, 2a being the main study.
The Studies for Player Piano is a series of 49 études for player piano by American Mexican . The Study No. 28 is another one of those complex pieces by Nancarrow. It is one of the few pieces which have actual rules and correlations. Étude Op. 25, No. 6, in G-sharp minor, is a technical study composed by Frédéric Chopin focusing on thirds, trilling them at a high speed. Also called the Double.
This way, 2x 2b has a tempo ratio of , 2y 2c has a tempo ratio of and 2z 2d has a tempo ratio of Some publishers and record companies use the title Study No. This extended version arranged for player piano was also composed in and was later included in the set decades later as an afterthought.
Between and , Nancarrow wrote the studies nos. Some of these compositions have been dated according to evidence, but Nancarrow never left a date in any of his originals. In these studies, Nancarrow explored the possibilities of polyrhythm , prolation canons and the usage of irrational numbers , such as the square root of two. However, he still used different musical styles, including jazz or blues.
The Study No. However, it is not a strict canon, as the rhythmic patterns are not followed. It was arranged for the ballet Crises , by Merce Cunningham and John Cage , and again for piano four-hands. It is a study of repeated and rapid runs and chordal motifs, superimposed over two ostinato rhythmic and melodic lines in the bass at tempos It starts with only two voices but ends up with thirteen. It was also arranged for Crises and, later on, for chamber orchestra.
It was first performed in Kassel , in Summer , and has since been arranged for a Marantz computer-piano, chamber orchestra, piano four-hands, two pianos and small orchestra. Of all of Nancarrow's early compositions for player piano, Study No. It takes 6 minutes to perform. According to American music scholar Kyle Gann , it is one of the few studies approaching the sonata form.
One of the most complex early compositions, the study features striking rhythmic pattern together with melodic lines. The eight-part composition ends with racing arpeggios. It was originally presented with a longer beginning and a shorter ending. It was first performed together with the first three studies in Mexico City , on 30 July and has been arranged for a Marantz computer-piano, chamber orchestra, piano four-hands, two pianos and two disc-pianos.
These techniques were further developed along his musical career. The study is in three parts and is considered the first acceleration study. It was also the first time Nancarrow used bar lines and conventional notation. The first performance of the work was the one in in Mexico City. The following studies would continue to explore varied meters and tempos. Among them, the Study No. As his previous studies, the bass line is in ostinato and the ratios used in the study are It was also premiered in the performance of the studies 7 and 8, in Mexico City and was arranged for chamber orchestra, piano four-hands and two pianos.
The last study to feature jazz characteristics is Study No. It has a blues melody and complex rhythmic patterns, given the continually changing time signature. The first version of this study was in ABA form. However, in Nancarrow's circa revision of the study, the first section was dropped. This later revision is now considered authoritative.
It uses conventional notation and features a sequence of repeating chords. There are up to thirty tempo changes in the first page alone. The study imitates the guitar arpeggios used in flamenco music. This study was arranged for chamber orchestra in These three studies were first performed at the Mexico City event in which most of his other studies to date were performed.
All of these canons have at least one characteristic in common: the prolation of the different parts. Nancarrow became displeased with the result and decided to withdraw it and to never publish it.
However, he made it available as a recording. The rest of the canons were published, starting with Study No. It is largely seen as a precursor of Study No. Finally, the Study No. Chronologically, the next composition to be finished was the Study No. It is an acceleration study where one voice progressively slows down while the other speeds up.
The study starts with a bass line playing a tone row at about 4 notes per second, immediately followed by the other voice, playing thirty-nine notes per second. Then the bass line starts to speed up and the treble line slows down progressively, reaching the same tempo halfway through the piece. The piece ends up with one of the lines playing notes per second. It was presumably written in and was first performed in the Mexico City performance in The X alludes to the tempo acceleration and deceleration of both parts in the canon.
It was also arranged for synthesizer, Marantz computer-piano, two disc-pianos and two voices. Someone asked me how do I remember things from books deeply? It makes me feel like an expert dot connector. After studying something for a year you realise how much more there is to still learn. I was at the park the other day. There was a young boy running around having the time of his life. Up the slide, down the slide, in the tree, out of the tree, in the dirt, out of the dirt, up the hill, down the hill.
He was laughing and jumping then laughing again. His mum came over to pick him up.
He kept laughing as she carried him away, waving his blue plastic shovel. What is it that fascinated him? He was playing. He was having fun.
The whole world was new. Our culture has a strict divide between work and play. Study is seen as work. The money buys you leisure time. If you have it in your head study is work, it will be hell.
You know how it goes, all work and no play. But suppose, you have the idea studying is the process of going through one topic and then to the next.
Connecting different things like a game. You start to have the same feeling about it as you might have if you were Charlie going down the slide. You learn one thing, you use it to learn something else, you get stuck, you get over it, you learn another thing. And you make a dance out of it. I connected the dots. Dancing from dot to the next. This is the 3-year-old principle. Seeing everything as play. Poor sleep means poor studying.
The best money for driving Uber was Friday and Saturday nights. I was a train wreck for two days. Tuesday got better and by Wednesday I was back where I needed to be. Then the cycle would repeat on Friday. This broken sleep schedule was unacceptable. My goal was to learn better. Sleep cleanses the brain and allows new connections in the brain to happen.